blending of edible oils - objective & Industrial aims

The blending of edible oils

Ø Blended of edible oil or vegetable oil is a mixture of two edible vegetable oils i.e. refined and refined oils or raw and refined oils, or raw and raw oil, in which the proportion of any of oil is not less than 20% 
blending-of-edible-oil
blending style of edible oil
Ø Simple mixing is done in definite proportion to meet the preference of consumers
OBJECTIVE OF BLENDING:
Ø Leverage on “health platform”
Ø Enlarges availability of  conventional edible oils
Ø  Provides nutritionally better oils at a relatively cheaper price
Ø Leads to a balanced fatty acid composition as recommended by WHO (1:1.5:1 SMP ratio)
Ø Ratio of saturated/monounsaturated/ polyunsaturated fatty acids
Ø Ratio of essential fatty acids (omega-3 / omega-6)
Ø Presence of Natural antioxidants
Ø Reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids without an
increased content of trans fat
blending-of-edible-oils

Industrial Aims to blend of edible oils:



Ø To change a product so as to meet a specification.
Ø To dilute a contamination to insignificance.
Ø To make a ‘new product’.


NEED FOR BLENDING OF EDIBLE OILS:

 Ø Improving fatty acid profile
 Ø Meet the desirable ratio of various  fatty acids essential for human consumption
 Ø Provide edible oils of improved shelf life
 Ø Improved frying characteristic
 Ø Improve the nutritional value
 Ø Improve the oxidative stability


PROPERTIES OF BLENDED OIL:

The blended oil should be:
 Ø Clear and free from rancidity
 Ø Free from  suspended or insoluble matter or any other foreign matter
 Ø Free from added coloring matter, flavoring substances, mineral oil
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS:
 Ø Essential Fats are a group of fatty acids essential for human health
 Ø Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized in the human body
 Ø The requirement of essential fatty acid is accomplished by eating essential fatty acid rich oils
 Ø Fatty acids that the human body needs for metabolic functioning but cannot produce
 Ø There are two essential fatty acids in human nutrition – omega-3 and omega-6
 Ø They are essential nutrients just like calcium, potassium, vitamin-C
BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID:
 Ø Increase energy and stamina
 Ø Lower most risk factor for cardiovascular disease
 Ø Speed recovery & healing
 Ø Regulate organs & gland
Ø Improve digestion
Ø Keep bone strong
TYPES OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID:
Omega-3 Fatty Acid
 Ø Alfa Linolenic Acid (ALA)
 Ø Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
 Ø Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA)
 Ø Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

Omega-6 Fatty Acid
 Ø Linoleic acid(LA)
 Ø Gamma Linolenic Acid(GLA)
 Ø Arachidonenic Acid (AA)
WHAT EFA DOES??
 Ø Forms of healthy cell membranes
 Ø Properly develops and helps in the functioning of the brain and nervous system
 Ø Produces hormone-like substances called Eicosanoids
 Ø Regulates blood pressure, blood viscosity, vasoconstriction, immune and inflammatory responses.
LINOLEIC / LINOLENIC RATIO FOR BETTER
NUTRITION:
blending_of_edible_oils_weight_ratio


EFFECT OF FATTY ACID ON CHOLESTEROL LEVEL:
SATURATED FATTY ACID:
 Ø Examples of foods, high in saturated fats include lard, butter, milk, cream, eggs
 Ø Increase risk for heart disease

you can read    kra of the production engineer

MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACID:
 Ø Increased consumption of monounsaturated fats lowers LDL cholesterol
 Ø Lowers the risk of coronary heart diseases, especially if monounsaturated fats are used to substitute for saturated fats
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS:
Ø Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential fatty acids. It mainly consists of:-
 v OMEGA 3 fatty acids - flaxseed oil and canola oil
 v OMEGA 6 fatty acids - safflower, sunflower, soybean, and cottonseed oil

TRANS FATTY ACID:
Ø Made through hydrogenation to solidify liquid oils
Ø Increases blood LDL-cholesterol
Ø Decreases HDL cholesterol
Ø Raises the risk of coronary heart disease
LDL AND HDL CHOLESTEROL LEVEL:
Ø LDL stands for "low-density lipoprotein," and HDL for "high-density lipoprotein"
Ø Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol increase the risk of heart attack and stroke
Ø Higher HDL cholesterol levels are associated with a lower risk of heart disease

 OXIDATION & RANCIDITY OF OIL:
 Ø Lipid oxidation is the major reason for food deteriorate
 Ø It is caused by the reaction of fats & oils with molecule oxygen leading to off- flavor
 Ø Consist of auto-oxidation

   MECHANISMS OF LIPID OXIDATION


Initiation: LH+R* L*+RH

Propagation: L*+O2 LOO*

LOO*+LH L*+LOOH

Termination:

LO*+LO* N-R PRODUCT

LOO*+LOO* N-R PRODUCT

LO*+LOO* N-R PRODUCT


    OXIDATION STABILITY:

      Factors that influence oxidation stability include the following:
 Ø Fatty acid composition
 Ø Antioxidant
 Ø Pro-oxidant
 Ø Oxygen availability
 Ø Temperature
 Ø Light

  

   EFFECTS OF FRYING ON OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF OILS:


 Ø Deep frying involves the temperature of the order of 160-195ºC
 Ø Fats rapidly hydrolyzes in the presence of moisture-containing food
 Ø The byproducts of thermal degradation are not absorbed by the body
  
     EFFECT OF BLENDING ON OXIDATION STABILITY:
     Blending with oils like sesame oil, rice bran, etc. which contain natural antioxidants like oryzanol, sesamol,  sesamine, sesamolin, etc. increases the oxidative stability of the oils.
blending-of-edible-oil
  
       ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS INSTABILITY:
 Ø Definition – Any substance that inhibits the oxidation of the substrate.
 Ø Antioxidants act as free radical terminators, reducing agents.
 Ø Synthetic antioxidants such as BHT, BHA & TBHQ donate hydrogen to adjacent phenolic hydroxyl groups to produce a  stable free radical that is not active in further propagation
   
     BLENDED OIL- A HEALTHY COOKING MEDIUM:                   
 Ø It provides good nutrition to our body.
 Ø Helps in treating coronary heart diseases.
 Ø Efficiently lowers the cholesterol level in our body, thereby reducing ill effects.


    EFFECT OF BLENDING ON FRYING:
blending-of-edible-oil

    PUFA RICH OILS:
     ADVANTAGES
 Ø Polyunsaturated fatty acid rich oils reduce the good cholesterol
 Ø Only source of essential fatty acids viz. omega-6 and omega-3
 Ø Regulation of physiological processes in the body
 Ø Only 20-33% of the total intake of fat should be derived from PUFA
    ITS ADVERSE EFFECTS
 Ø At high-temperature PUFA oxidized and polymerized.
 Ø Oxidation of PUFA produces free radicals.
 Ø Oil become Rancid

    REDUCING THE CONTENT OF PUFA IN OILS:
    This can be done by the following two methods:
 Ø Partial Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen in the presence of the catalyst.
 Ø Blending : Mixing SAFA, MUFA,PUFA etc in requisite proportion
     
   Advantages of partial hydrogenation of PUFA:
 Ø Provides less dietary cholesterol
 Ø Provides relatively high levels of saturated fat
 Ø Provides resistance against rancidity
 Ø Preserves freshness
 Ø Extends the shelf life of foods containing them
   Drawbacks of Partial Hydrogenation of PUFA:
 Ø  Formation of Trans Fatty Acids
 Ø  Undesirable for consumption

    ADVANTAGE OF BLENDING OVER HYDROGENATION:
 Ø  Blending the PUFA rich oils with MUFA and SAFA rich oils in desired amounts  leads to the formulation of oil blends which have optimum PUFA concentration without the formation of trans fatty acids as in case of hydrogenation
    IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE BLENDING:
 Ø Physiochemical characterization of raw material used
 Ø Physiochemical characterization of prepared blends
 Ø Study of oxidation stability of different blends with variation  in the following parameters :
o   composition
o   wt % of added antioxidants
 Ø Study of SMP and ω-3/ω-6 ratio via GLC
 Ø Comparison with commercially available blends
    
   CHARACTERISTICS - Blending of edible oils:
 Ø High proportion of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
 Ø It has a high content of Linoleic acid and low contents of Linolenic acid.
 Ø It has a longer shelf life.
 Ø Ratio of S:M:P is closer to that recommended WHO.
   SMP RATIO OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF OILS

    PROCESS OF OIL  BLENDING
    An edible oil blend can be prepared by mixing in desired quantities, the following
       A desired linoleic acid content,
      A desired saturated fatty acid content,
      A desired polyunsaturated fatty acid content
      A desired oleic acid content
      
      Also, read  
      Pressure leaf filter principle & operation
      Double pipe heat exchanger theory



2 comments:
Unknown said...

very very informative post keep it up

Clickndia said...

Thanks for commenting